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The verb in the second book in Gipuskoan Bask


The verb in the second book in Gipuskoan Bask

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    Available in PDF Format | The verb in the second book in Gipuskoan Bask.pdf | Unknown
    Edward Spencer Dodgson
Excerpt from book: DODGSON VERB IN BASK : THE SUFFIXES N(t AND La. 27 a transitive and active verb, thus dana ikussi du erleak' = the bee has seen him who is it. But in danak we see the form ready for use as an active force : thus danak = he who is it (being nominated to act), bad'ji = really has, eizagirrea = the hunting-glade. Dituanak may mean those which he has, and serve either as aceusative plural to an active form like ditu = he has them, or as nominative passive to an intransitive form like daude = they stay: and with these meanings its n can only be aceusative to ditu. But dituanak can also mean he who has them: and in this sense both its n and its ak are active nominative cases, and the whole word can be nothing else than the subject of a transitive verb in the singular number. So that dituanak ditu may also render " he who has them has them." Degu is plural, but deyunn is singular. Ditu is singular, but dituanak is plural. Zate is singular, but zatenay is plural. Dirade is plural, but diradenean is singular. Dana = All. Dana = that which is, is used in the sense of all (which is) in the singular. What a man has or is, is his all, all that he can do or be. Some writers have made a plural of it, danak. The real plural, however, is diradenak = (all] those which are. Some others, Cardaberaz for instance, have used the past tense zena for the singular, and ziradenak for the plural, in the sense of all, when referring to time past. Probably no other language makes suoh a time - comparative of all or any adjective ! The Suffix La. The termination la = that belongs to the conjunctive mood. When used with the imperative it is not to be translated. It sometimes suffices to turn an indicative form into an imperative, ora conjunctive : thus dute = they have it: dutela = that they have ...  
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